Wednesday, 12 May 2021


Q.4 Electric Pressure is also called?


Q.3 The flow of current in solids is due to ?


You can use this search box only 2 times !
Q.2 The dielectric strength of transformer oil should be of the order of ?
415 KV
6.6 KV
11 KV
30 KV


You can use this search box only 2 times !
Q.1 The efficiency of a transformer is usually in the order of ?

Tuesday, 20 April 2021

Electric Cars in India | Basic Parts Of Electric Car | Electric Cars Price Features

Electric Cars in India | Basic Parts Of Electric Car | Electric Cars Price Features 

Electric Cars is much Brighter in next Decades and many wide Job Scopes for Electrical Engineer in future.

Now a days craze of Electric Cars is grow more and more World Wide

But in present the growth of Electric Cars is just begin.

Electric Cars in India | Basic Parts Of Electric Car | Electric Cars Price Features

Page Content :

1. History Of Electric Cars

2. Introduction To An Electric Cars

3. Basic Construction Of Electric Cars

4. Comparison Between Electric Cars And Gasoline Cars

5. Top 5 Electric Cars In The World

6. Future Career In Electric Vehicle For Electrical Engineer.

7. Advantages Of Electric Cars

8. Disadvantages Of Electric Cars

1. History Of Electric Cars

Netherlands and United States creates the first Small Scale Electric Car.

History Of Electric Cars

Nearby 1832, Robert Anderson developed first crude electric vehicle.

Here we saw the first Electric Vehicle in below picture which is built by an english inventor in 1884.


The first successful Electric Vehicle is built in United States by William Morrison in between 1889 to 1891.

World's first Hybrid electric car is developed in 1901 by Ferdinand Porche, who is the founder of sports car.

2. Introduction To An Electric Cars

Electric car is a car which is basically propelled by one or more Electrical Motor which use the Energy stored in battery and here Batteries are Rechargeable.

So, For Charging of Electrical Cars, Various charging stations are provided as like a fuel stations. 

We can also installed the Charging Point at houses.

3. Basic Construction Of Electric Cars
Electric cars

Construction of Electric Car

Basic Parts of an electric car are mentioned below:

  • Rechargeable Battery
  • Charging Point
  • DC to DC Converter
  • Onboard Charger
  • Power Electronics Controller
  • Electric Traction Motor
  • Traction Battery Pack
  • Cooling System
  • Electric Transmission

Construction Of Electric Car

(1) Rechargeable Battery

The electric cars consists large battery pack which used to power the electric motor.

The place of battery is shown in figure of construction. This battery provides the electricity to power vehicle accessories in Electric Cars.

(2) Charging Point

Electric cars

Charging Point For Electric Cars

For charge the electric cars, it has own charge port. 

Charging point connect to the external power supply to charge the traction battery pack.

(3) DC To DC Converter

Car accessories work needs a DC power supply, So electric cars consists DC to DC converters. 

DC to DC converters provides normal voltage level which is useful for accessories work and to recharge the auxiliary battery.

Get More Knowledge Related To Different Power Electronics Convertor 

(4)Onboard Charger

Onboard charger is required to converts AC power supply to charge the traction battery.

Also onboard charger control the main battery parameter such that current, voltage, temperature and state of charge at the time of charging.

(5) Power Electronics Controller

Power Electronics Controller Control the flow of electrical power delivered by the traction battery.

Also it controls the torque of the electric traction motor and speed of Electric Traction Motor.

(6) Electric Traction Motor

Electric cars

Electric Traction Motor

Electric Traction Motor used to drive the car's wheels by using power from traction battery pack.

(7) Traction Battery Pack

Traction battery pack used to store the electricity which is used for Electric Traction Motor. Check More For Electrical Capacitor

(8) Cooling System

This system maintain the temperature for operation of electric motor, power electronics converter and other components.

(9) Electric Transmission

This system transfer the mechanical power from the electric traction motor to the drive wheels.

May You Like To Refer Article On Electrical Transformer 

4. Comparison Between Cars And Gasoline Cars

There are many difference Between Electric Car and Gasoline Cars. 

Here We Discuss Some Of Them Major Difference. 

Electric Car No Tailpipe Emissions 

Gasoline Car Greenhouse Gases/Pollution

Electric Car Takes Hours For Recharge but Gasoline Car need just minutes To Refuel

Comparison Between Electric Car And Gasoline Car

Top 5 Electric Cars In The World

Here we mentioned top 5 Electric Cars in the World and also mentioned those features:

(1) Nissan LEAF

Nissan Leaf Electric Car

Features of Nissan LEAF:

  1. Wheels: 17 inch aluminium alloy wheels.
  2. Lights: LED taillights and Fog lights
  3. Charging Port: Fast Charging Port
  4. Navigation: 7 inch colour display.
  5. Smart cruise control and Emergency automatic braking system.

(2) BMW i3

BMW i3 Electric Car

Features of BMW i3:

  1. Camera: Rearview camera
  2. Lights: LED head lights
  3. Navigation: 6.5 inch display screen
  4. Wheels: 19 inch alloy wheels

(3) Mercedes - Benz B - class 

Mercedes Benz B Class Electric Car

Features of Mercedes Benz B - class:

  1. Wheels: Leather trimmed and multifunction steering wheels.
  2. Climate Control: Dual Zone climate Control
  3. Navigation: 7 inch touch screen with audio and bluetooth connectivity.

(4) Chevrolet Bolt EV

Chevrolet Bolt EV Electric Car

Features of Chevrolet Bolt EV:

  1.  Camera: Rearview camera
  2. Wheels: 17 inch alloy wheels
  3. Navigation: 10.2 inch touch screen with Apple CarPlay and Android Auto
  4. Ignition and entry is keyless.

(5) Ford Focus Electric

Ford Focus Electric Car

Features of Ford Focus Electric

  1. Lights: LED taillights
  2. Wheels: Leather wrapped steering wheels
  3. Navigation: 8 inch touch screen with Apple CarPlay and Android Auto
  4. Start with remote and pre air conditioning system.

Future Scopes In Electric Vehicle For Electrical Engineer

Future scopes in electrical vehicle is bright in government sector as well as in industry.

Ramesh Raydu says that india will be Electric by 2030.

The nascent EV industry will shift the job of automotive engineers to the electrical engineer.

Advantages Of Electric Cars

  • Noise pollution is reduced.
  • Maintenance cost is less.
  • Cheaper to Run.
  • Pollution is less.
  • We can use renewable energy for recharge the Electric Cars.
  • Material used in Electric Cars is eco friendly.
  • Drive is safe.

Disadvantages Of Electric Cars

  • Batteries are overloaded.
  • Driving range and speed is short.
  • cost of battery replacement is again and again needed.
  • Some models of Electric Cars are expensive.

Question Part For Electric Car

Hope You Like This All Questions And Answer Related Electric Cars. 

Do electric cars have engines? 

Electric cars have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine. 

The motor is powered by a large battery pack placed in the car, which can be recharged through a wall socket or portable charger.

Which are the best electric cars in India? 

There are currently 8 electric cars available for sale in India. The popular electric cars are i-pace, r3, eqc, nexon ev, zs ev.

How long does the battery of an electric car last?

Depending on the size of the battery pack of an EV, the battery can last for a range of 100-450 km. 

To give some clarity, a mid-sized 22 kWh battery gives a range of around 130-160 kms.

 In India, the Jaguar I- Pace HSE, offers the best range among all electric cars.

Some Other Questions Related To Electric Car

May You Can Answer This Questions So If You Know Answer Then Comment Your Answer In Comment Box

1.Which is the cheapest electric car in India?
2.Which electric car is available in India?
3.Is it worth buying electric car in India?
4.What is the charging time for electric cars? 
5.Can we charge electric cars at home?
6.what is the battery life of electric cars?

Some Electric cars Related Keyword Which Are Search On Google

Electric cars in India under 5 lakhs
Electric cars in India under 10 lakhs 
Upcoming electric cars in India 2020 
Electric car price in India 2020 
Electric cars in India 2021 
Small electric cars in India
Electric car price in India 2021

More Article From Our Collection :

Thursday, 28 January 2021

Transformer | All in One | Definition , Types And Working Principles Of Electrical Transformer

Transformer |All in One | Definition , Types And Working Principles Of Electrical Transformer


A Transformer is a Static Electromagnetic Device consisting of two or more Windings which link with a common Magnetic Field.

In Other Words , A Transformer a device that Transfers Electric Power from one circuit to another without a change of Frequency.

It Can Raise or lower the voltage in a Circuit but with a Corresponding Decrease or increase current .

Electrical Transformer
Electrical Transformer


In brief , a Transformer in is a Machine that 

  • Transfers Electrical Energy from one circuit to another 
  • does so without a Change Of Frequency
  • does so by the principle of Electro-magnetic Induction
  • has Electric Circuits that are linked by a Common Magnetic Circuit.

The Basic Construction Of Transformer requires no Moving Part, requires Minimum Amount of Repair and Maintenance

The Transformer usually takes place with a Change of Voltage, although this not always necessary.

Basically , When the transformer Raises the Voltage in Example when the output voltage of a transformer is higher than its input voltage, it is called the Step- Up and when it lowers the voltage, it is called the Step-Down transformer .

A Simple Transformer consists of a Ferromagnetic Core or Silicon Steel Core and two windings placed on it.

The windings are Electrically Separated but magnetically linked through a path of Low Reluctance as shown in Picture 

Electrical Transformer
The Windings are insulated from both the core and each other.

The core is made of thin silicon steel Laminations to provide to the magnetic flux. 

The winding connect to the supply mains is called the primary and the winding connected To the load circuit is called the secondary.

In other words, the winding In to the load from which drawn out is called Secondary Winding.

Example :

A Transformer Have 500 turns Of Primary Winding  And 10 Turns Of Secondary Winding Than Determine The Current In Primary And Secondary Winding?? 
Given there the secondary winding connected with 15ohm resistance Load!! 

Hint : I2=V2/R

Types Of Transformers 

According To Construction, there are two main Types of Transformers namely
  1. Core type and 
  2. Shell type

Core type transformers

In this Type of Transformer, 
The windings surround the iron core

Both windings are divided and half of each winding is placed on each so that the two windings can be closely coupled together to keep the leakage flux and hence leakage reactance low.

Electrical Transformer, Core Type Transformer
Core Type Transformer

The Low Voltage (l.v.) winding is wound on the inside nearer to the core while the High voltage (h.v.) winding is wound over the l.v. winding away from the core in order to reduce the amount of Insulating Materials required and also the insulation of low voltage winding is easy.

With this Arrangement Of Windings, only one layer of high voltage insulation is required and removal or repair of the high voltage winding, 

Which is more liable to faults than the low Voltage Winding, is easy and convenient.

Small transformers have core of square or Rectangular Cross-Section but for large size transformers stepped or cruciform core is used as shown in figer. 

Electrical Transformer, Core Type Transformer

The core section for core type of transformers may be square, rectangular or stepped. 

Shall Type Transformers use cores with rectangular cross-section.

Shell type transformers 

In Shell Type Transformers, the windings are put around the central limb and the flux path is completed through two side limbs as shown in figer .

Electrical Transformer, Shell Type Transformer
Shell Type Transformer

The Central Limb Carries total Mutual Flux while the side limbs forming a part of a parallel magnetic circuit carry half the total Flux.

Consequently, The Cross-Sectional Area and hence width of the central limb is twice that of each of the side limbs. 

The sandwich type of winding is used in which the sections of the Primary Winding are sandwiched in between the sections of the secondary winding.

Therefore, the Leakage Flux is reduced and hence leakage reactance will be Low

To minimize the amount of high voltage insulation, low voltage coils are placed adjacent to the Iron Core.

Electrical Transformer, Shell Type Transformer

In this Type Of Transformer, the coils are better braced mechanically that they are Less easily displaced by the high electro-mechanical forces that frequently develop during short circuits.

For More Detail Check Article Of Types Of Transformers

Ideal Transformers And Auto Transformers

An Ideal Transformer is one which has no losses and magnetic leakage.

An Ideal Transformer has no ohmic resistance in the windings and no leakage flux. 

An auto-transformer is special Type Of Transformer having a single winding of insulated copper wire such that the part of the winding is common to the Primary And Secondary. 
i e. that serves as both primary and secondary

For More Information Of Ideal Transformer Auto Transformer : Click Here

Advantage Of 3 Phase Transformer

A 3-phase AC system is used to generate and transmit Large Amount Of Power.

  • It occupies less floor space for equal ratings
  • It is lighter in weight.
  • Smaller size for the same rating. 1phase
  • A 3- phase transformer is cheaper than a bank of three transformers.
  • It requires few bushings.
  • Less transformer oil is used.
Check Here For Extra information on Advantages of 3 Phase Transformer

Essential Consist In Three Phase Transformers

  1. Magnetic Circuit
  2. Electric Circuit
  3. Dielectric Circuit
  4. Tank and Accessories
  5. More... 

What Is A Advantage Of Scott Connection Of 3- Phase Transformer? 

Scott Connection requires a 3-phase power input and provide two equal single phase outputs.

Check More for Scott Connection Here

What is The Application Of Current Transformer ??

A CT is a device for the transformation of current from a Higher  Values to a lower values that are suitable for measurement of the relay operation.

The VA rating of CTs is very small as compared with Power and Distribution Transformers.
Click Here For More 

What Is The Application Of Potential Transformers ???

Potential Transformers are used for the information of voltage from higher values to a lower values that are suitable for Measurement And Protection.

Potential Transformers are used for measurement and protection. 

The VA rating of PT is very small compared with Power Transformers.

What Is The Tap Changing In The Electrical Transformers ? 

The Tap Changing may be done when the transformers are disconnected from the circuit or when Operating On Load.

Tap Changer is fitted with the transformer for adjusting the Secondary voltage.

The modern practice is to install the tap-changer with the Transformer Tank.

For More information on Tap Changing of Transformer. 

Video Of Transformer

Sunday, 12 July 2020

Authentication Ecosystem Operation Model And Requesting Entities Of Aadhar Card

Authentication Ecosystem Operation Model And Requesting Entities Of Aadhar Card

Validation Ecosystem Operation Model Of Aadhaar Card

This working model diagrams the on-screen characters engaged with the Aadhaar Authentication biological system.

The accompanying figure distinguishes the key on-screen characters in the Aadhaar verification model and delineates the information stream in which the key entertainers could draw in with one another.

The concise depiction of key on-screen characters and the situations in which they connect with one another are demonstrated in the figure underneath .

Authentication Ecosystem Operation Model And Requesting Entities Of Aadhar Card
Authentication Ecosystem Operation Model And Requesting Entities Of Aadhar Card

Aadhaar Authentication Framework

"Aadhaar number holder" signifies a person who has been given an Aadhaar number under the Act

"Confirmation" signifies the procedure by which the Aadhaar number alongside statistic data or biometric data of an individual is submitted to the Central Identities Data Repository for its check and such Repository confirms the rightness, or the deficiency in that department, based on data accessible with it

"Verification office" signifies the office gave by the Authority to confirming the personality data of an Aadhaar number holder through the procedure of confirmation, by giving a Yes/No reaction or e-KYC information, as pertinent

"Validation Service Agency" or "ASA" mean a substance giving vital framework to guaranteeing secure system availability and related administrations for empowering a mentioning element to perform verification utilizing the confirmation office gave by the Authority

"Verification User Agency" or "AUA" signifies a mentioning substance that uses the Yes/No validation office gave by the Authority

"Focal Identities Data Repository" or ""CIDR"" implies a brought together database in at least one areas containing all Aadhaar numbers gave to Aadhaar number holders alongside the comparing statistic data and biometric data of such people and other data related thereto

Confirmation Devices: These are the gadgets that gather PID (Personal Identity Data) from Aadhaar holders, encode the PID square, transmit the validation parcels and get the verification results. Models incorporate PCs, stands, handheld gadgets and so on. They are conveyed, worked and oversaw by the AUA/Sub AUA."

Authentication Ecosystem Operation Model And Requesting Entities Of Aadhar Card

Procedure of sending confirmation demands

1. Subsequent to gathering the Aadhaar number or some other identifier gave by the mentioning element which is mapped to Aadhaar number and fundamental statistic and/or biometric data or potentially OTP from the Aadhaar number holder.

The customer application will promptly bundle and scramble these info parameters into PID hinder before any transmission, according to the determinations set somewhere near the Authority, and will send it to server of the mentioning element utilizing secure conventions as might be set somewhere around the Authority for this reason

2. After approval, the server of a mentioning substance will pass the verification solicitation to the CIDR, through the server of the Authentication Service Agency according to the particulars set somewhere near the Authority.

The verification demand will be carefully marked by the mentioning substance and additionally by the Authentication Service Agency, according to the shared understanding between them.

3. In light of the method of verification demand, the CIDR will approve the info parameters against the information put away in that and return a carefully marked Yes or No confirmation reaction, or a carefully marked e-KYC validation reaction with encoded e-KYC information, by and large, alongside other specialized subtleties identified with the validation exchange.

4. In all methods of confirmation, the Aadhaar number is obligatory and is submitted alongside the information parameters indicated in sub-guideline (1) better than that verification is constantly diminished to a 1:1 match.

Authentication Ecosystem Operation Model And Requesting Entities Of Aadhar Card

5. A mentioning element will guarantee that encryption of PID Block happens at the hour of catch on the confirmation gadget according to the procedures and determinations set somewhere around the Authority."

The key on-screen characters could draw in with one another in various ways. For instance, an AUA could decide to turn into its own ASA, an AUA could get to Aadhaar validation benefits through numerous ASAs for reasons.

for example, business congruity arranging, an AUA transmits verification demands for its own assistance conveyance needs just as in the interest of various Sub AUAs.

About Requesting Entities (AUA, KUA)

According to the Aadhaar Act 2016, a mentioning element implies an organization or an individual that submits Aadhaar number and statistic data or biometric data, of a person to the Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) for verification.

Validation User Agency (AUA) is an element occupied with giving Aadhaar Enabled Services to Aadhaar number Holder, utilizing the confirmation as encouraged by the Authentication Service Agency (ASA).

An AUA might be government/open/private lawful office enlisted in India, that utilizations Aadhaar confirmation administrations of UIDAI and sends verification solicitations to empower its administrations/business capacities.

Sub AUAs are offices that utilization Aadhaar validation to empower its administrations through a current mentioning substance.

A mentioning substance, (for example, AUA, KUA) interfaces with the CIDR through an ASA (either by turning out to be ASA all alone or by contracting administrations of a current ASA).

Arrangement of Requesting Entities (Authentication User Agency and e-KYC User Agency)

Offices looking to become mentioning substances to utilize the verification office gave by the Authority will apply for arrangement as mentioning elements as per the technique as might be determined by the Authority for this reason.

Just those substances that satisfy the criteria set down in Schedule An are qualified to apply. The Authority may by request, correct Schedule A now and again in order to change the qualification criteria.

The Authority may require the candidate to outfit additional data or explanations, with respect to issues important to the movement of such a mentioning substance, by and large, which may some way or another be viewed as essential by the Authority, to consider and discard the application.

The candidate will outfit such data and explanation as per the general inclination of the Authority, inside the time as might be indicated in such manner by the Authority.

While thinking about the application, the data outfitted by the candidate and its qualification, the Authority may check the data through physical confirmation of records, foundation, and innovative help which the candidate is required to have.

After check of the application, archives, data outfitted by the candidate and its qualification, the Authority may:

a. favor the application for mentioning substance, all things considered and

b. go into fitting concurrences with the element or organization consolidating the terms and conditions for use by mentioning substances of the Authority's verification office, including harms and disincentives for non-execution of commitments.

The Authority may occasionally, decide the expenses and charges payable by elements during their arrangement, including application expenses, yearly membership charges and expenses for singular verification exchanges.

Obligatory Security Requirements

  • Aadhaar number ought to be never utilized as a space explicit identifier.
  • On account of administrator helped gadgets, administrators ought to be verified utilizing instruments, for example, secret word, Aadhaar validation, and so on.
  • Individual Identity Data (PID) square caught for Aadhaar confirmation ought to be scrambled during catch and ought to never be sent free over a system.
  • The scrambled PID square ought not be put away except if it is for supported confirmation for a brief period, as of now arranged as 24 hours.
  • Biometric and OTP information caught for the motivations behind Aadhaar verification ought not be put away on any changeless stockpiling or database.
  • The meta information and the reactions ought to be logged for review purposes.
  • System among AUA and ASA ought to be secure.
  • Mentioning Entities (AUA/KUA) Responsibilities and Data Securities
  • For Requesting Entities (AUA/KUA) Responsibilities and Data Securities the Aadhaar Act, 2016 and its guidelines might be alluded

Questions Asked By People

What is CIDR aadhaar? 

Focal Identities Data Repository (CIDR) is an administration office in India that stores and oversees information for the nation's Aadhaar venture. 

CIDR is entrusted with guaranteeing that the data contained in the Aadhaar cards is special to every person and kept refreshed and important. 

What is aadhar share code? 

It is a safe sharable record which can be utilized by any Aadhaar number holder for disconnected check of Identification. 

TOTP will be accessible on m-Aadhaar portable Application of UIDAI. Enter the OTP got/TOTP. Enter a Share Code which be the secret phrase for the ZIP document and snap on 'Download' button. 

What is implied by Aadhaar validation? 

Aadhaar Authentication is alluded to a procedure that includes check of Aadhar subtleties. 

The Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR) is answerable for approval of Aadhar subtleties dependent on the submitted statistic and biometric data. 

Would i be able to check my Aadhar card status by name? 

Steps to Check Aadhar Card Status through Mobile Number 

Type the accompanying SMS "UID STATUS <14 digit enrolment number>" and send it to 51969. On the off chance that the Aadhaar has been produced, the candidate gets a SMS containing the Aadhaar number. If not, a SMS is sent to the candidate with the present status of the Aadhaar. 

What is implied by statistic validation? 

In statistic verification, the statistic data connected with the Aadhaar number is coordinated with the data accessible in the CIDR. 

OTP Based Authentication – OTP (One-time Pin/Password) is a secret phrase or pin number that is legitimate for a brief period. 

What number of sorts of Aadhar card are there? 

There are two kinds of information gets caught for Aadhaar enrolment for example Statistic (Name, Gender, DoB, Address, Mobile number and email id) and Biometric (10 Finger Prints, Both Iris and photo). 

How does aadhar confirmation work? 

UIDAI gives an instrument to confirm character of an Aadhaar number holder through an online electronic KYC administration. 

The e-KYC administration gives a confirmed moment confirmation of personality and essentially brings down the expense of paper based check and KYC.