Wednesday, 30 May 2018

Machine Language - Machine Language Of Microprocessors

Machine Language - Machine Language Of Microprocessors!!! 



Machine Language


• The number of bits that form the “word” of a  Microprocessor is fixed for that particular  processor.
– These bits define a maximum number of combinations.
• For example an 8-bit Microprocessor can have at most 28 = 256 different combinations.





• However, in most Microprocessors, not all of these combinations are used.
– Certain patterns are chosen and assigned specific meanings.
– Each of these patterns forms an instruction for the microprocessor.
– The complete set of patterns makes up the Microprocessor’s machine language.


The 8085 Machine Language


• The 8085 (from Intel) is an 8-bit microprocessor.
– The 8085 uses a total of 246 bit patterns to form its instruction set.
– These 246 patterns represent only 74 instructions.
• The reason for the difference is that some (actually most) instructions have multiple different formats.
– Because it is very difficult to enter the bit patterns correctly, they are usually entered in hexadecimal instead of binary.
• For example, the combination 0011 1100 which translates into “increment the number in the register called the accumulator”,  is usually entered as 3C.



Assembly Language


• Entering the instructions using hexadecimal is quite  easier than entering the binary combinations.
– However, it still is difficult to understand what a program  written in hexadecimal does.
– So, each company defines a symbolic code for the instructions.
– These codes are called “mnemonics”.
– The mnemonic for each instruction is usually a group of  letters that suggest the operation performed.


• Using the same example from before,
– 00111100 translates to 3C in hexadecimal (OPCODE)
– Its mnemonic is: “INR A”.
– INR stands for “increment register” and A is short for  accumulator.
• Another example is: 1000 0000,
– Which translates to 80 in hexadecimal.
– Its mnemonic is “ADD B”.
– “Add register B to the accumulator and keep the result in the
accumulator”.




• It is important to remember that a machine  language and its associated assembly language are completely machine dependent.
– In other words, they are not transferable from one  microprocessor to a different one.
• For example, Motorolla has an 8-bit
microprocessor called the 6800.
– The 8085 machine language is very different from that  of the 6800. So is the assembly language.
– A program written for the 8085 cannot be executed on  the 6800 and vice versa.

Assembling” The Program


• How does assembly language get translated into  machine language?
– There are two ways:
– 1st there is “hand assembly”.
• The programmer translates each assembly language instruction  into its equivalent hexadecimal code (machine language). Then  the hexadecimal code is entered into memory.
– The other possibility is a program called an  “assembler”, which does the translation automatically.

Friday, 25 May 2018

Which Is The Arithmetic logic Unit In Microprocessor ??

Which Is The Arithmetic logic Unit In Microprocessor ??



What Is The Function Of The Arithmetic Logic Unit In The Microprocessor And How Its Do A Logical Works In Microprocessor!!??  






• In addition to the Arithmetic & Logic circuits, the ALU includes the accumulator, which is part of every arithmetic & logic operation.

• Also, the ALU includes a Temporary Register used for holding data temporarily during the execution of the operation. This temporary register is not accessible by the programmer.


• Registers


– General Purpose Registers
• B, C, D, E, H & L (8 bit registers)
• Can be used singly
• Or can be used as 16 bit register pairs
– BC, DE, HL
• H & L can be used as a data pointer (holds memory address)
– Special Purpose Registers
• Accumulator (8 bit register)
– Store 8 bit data
– Store the result of an operation
– Store 8 bit data during I/O transfer





Flag Register


  • – 8 bit register – shows the status of the microprocessor before/after an operation
  • – S (sign flag), Z (zero flag), AC (auxillary carry flag), P (parity flag) & CY (carry flag)




– Sign Flag

• Used for indicating the sign of the data in the accumulator
• The sign flag is set if negative (1 – negative)
• The sign flag is reset if positive (0 –positive)





• Zero Flag

– Is set if result obtained after an operation is 0
– Is set following an increment or decrement operation of that register
10110011
+ 01001101
---------------
1 00000000


• Carry Flag

– Is set if there is a carry or borrow from arithmetic operation

1011 0101
+ 0110 1100
---------------
Carry 1 0010 0001


1011 0101
- 1100 1100
---------------
Borrow 1 1110 1001

• Auxillary Carry Flag

– Is set if there is a carry out of bit 3

• Parity Flag

– Is set if parity is even
– Is cleared if parity is odd

Sunday, 20 May 2018

Differences between Microcomputer , Microprocessor , Micro controller!!??

Differences between Microcomputer , Microprocessor , Micro controller



About The Microprocessor , Microcontroller,  and microcomputer!!?? 





– Microcomputer – a computer with a
Microprocessor as its CPU. Includes memory, I/O
etc.

– Microprocessor – silicon chip which includes  ALU, register circuits & control circuits

– Microcontroller – silicon chip which includes  Microprocessor, memory & I/O in a single  package.




What is a Microprocessor?

• The word comes from the combination Micro And Processor.

Processor means a device that processes whatever. In this context processor means a device that processes numbers, specifically Binary Numbers, 0’s and 1’s.

To process means to manipulate. It is a general term that describes all manipulation. Again in this content, it means to perform certain operations on the numbers that depend on the
Microprocessor’s Design.




@@@@@@

What about micro?

• Micro is a new addition.

  • – In the late 1960’s, processors were built using Discrete Elements.
  • These devices performed the required operation, but were too large and too slow.
  • In the early 1970’s the Microchip was invented. All of the components that made up the processor were now  placed on a single piece of silicon. The size became several thousand times smaller and the speed became  several hundred times faster. The “MicroProcessor"  was born.


Was there ever a “mini”-
processor?

• No.
– It went directly from discrete elements to a  single chip. However, comparing today’s

Microprocessors to the ones built in the early  1970’s you find an extreme increase in the  amount of integration.

Tuesday, 15 May 2018

Full About 8085 Microprocessor Architecture!!

8085 Microprocessor Architecture



How Manny Parts In The Microprocessor And The All Function Of All Different Parts !!



• 8-bit general purpose ┬Áp
• Capable of addressing 64 k of memory
• Has 40 pins
• Requires +5 v power supply
• Can operate with 3 MHz clock
• 8085 upward compatible



Figer 1


• System Bus – wires connecting memory & I/O to
Microprocessor
– Address Bus
• Unidirectional
• Identifying peripheral or memory location

Figer 2



  1. – Data Bus

• Bidirectional
• Transferring data


  1. – Control Bus

• Synchronization signals
• Timing signals
• Control signal





Architecture of Intel 8085 Microprocessor

Figer 3


Intel 8085 Microprocessor

• Microprocessor consists of:

– Control unit: control Microprocessor operations.
– ALU: performs data processing function.
– Registers: provide storage internal to CPU.
– Interrupts

– Internal data bus

Saturday, 12 May 2018

How Electricity Produce In Nuclear power Station!!??

How Electricity Produce In  Nuclear power Station!!?? 



In A Nuclear Power Station How We Can Gemerate The Electrical Energy By Process And How To Nuclear Power Plant Will Generate Electrical Power!! 






A generating station in which Nuclear Energy is converted into electrical energy is known as a nuclear power station.



In nuclear power station, heavy elements such as Uranium (U235) or Thorium (Th232) are subjected to Nuclear Fission in a special apparatus known as a reactor.





The heat energy thus released is utilised in raising steam at High Temperature and Pressure.


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The steam runs the steam turbine which converts steam energy into Mechanical Energy.

The turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.




The most important feature of a nuclear power station is that huge amount of Electrical Energy can be produced from a relatively small amount of nuclear fuel as compared to other conventional types of power stations.

It has been found that complete fission of 1 kg of Uranium (U235) can produce as much energy as can be produced by the burning of 4,500 tons of high grade coal. 


Although the recovery of principal Nuclear Fuels (i.e., Uranium and Thorium) is difficult and expensive, yet the total energy content of the estimated world reserves of these fuels are considerably higher than those of conventional fuels, viz., coal, oil and gas.





At present, energy crisis is gripping us and, therefore, nuclear energy can be successfully employed for producing Low Cost Electrical Energy on a large scale to meet the growing commercial and industrial demands.


The schematic arrangement of a nuclear power station is shown in Figer.




The whole arrangement can be divided into the following main stages:

  • (i) Nuclear reactor
  • (ii) Heat exchanger
  • (iii) Steam turbine
  • (iv) Alternator





Nuclear reactor: 

It is an apparatus in which nuclear fuel (U235) is subjected to Nuclear Fission. It controls the chain reaction that starts once the fission is done.

If the chain reaction is not controlled, the result will be an explosion due to the fast increase in the energy released.


A nuclear reactor is a cylindrical stout pressure vessel and houses fuel rods of Uranium, moderator and control rods.


The fuel rods constitute the fission material and release huge amount of energy when bombarded with slow moving neutrons.


The moderator consists of Graphite Rods which enclose the fuel rods.

The moderator slows down the neutrons before they bombard the fuel rods.

The control rods are of cadmium and are inserted into the reactor.

Cadmium is strong neutron absorber and thus regulates the supply of neutrons for fission.

When the control rods are pushed in deep enough, they absorb most of fission neutrons and hence few are available for chain reaction which, therefore, stops.

However, as they are being withdrawn, more and more of these fission neutrons cause fission and hence the intensity of chain reaction (or heat produced) is increased.

Therefore, by pulling out the control rods, power of the nuclear reactor is increased, whereas by pushing them in, it is reduced.


In actual practice, the lowering or raising of control rods is accomplished automatically according to the requirement of load.

The heat produced in the reactor is removed by the coolant, generally a sodium metal. The coolant carries the heat to the heat exchanger.





Heat exchanger:

 The coolant gives up heat to the heat exchanger which is utilised in raising the steam.

After giving up heat, the coolant is again fed to the reactor.



Steam turbine: 

The steam produced in the heat exchanger is led to the steam turbine through a valve. After doing a useful work in the turbine, the steam is exhausted to condenser.

The condenser condenses the steam which is fed to the heat exchanger through feed water pump.



Alternator:

The steam turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The output from the alternator is delivered to the bus-bars through transformer, circuit breakers and isolators.




Question Part:

1)What is a nuclear power station??? 
Ans: A generating station in which nuclear energy is converted into electrical energy is known as a nuclear power station.

2)The nuclear power plant arrangements are divided in how many stages????
Ans: The whole arrangement can be divided into the following main stages:
(i) Nuclear reactor
 (ii) Heat exchanger
(iii) Steam turbine
 (iv) Alternator

3)What is the function of heat exchanger??
Ans:  The coolant gives up heat to the heat exchanger which is utilised in raising the steam. After giving up heat, the coolant is again fed to the reactor.

4)What is the work of steam turbine in nuclear power station??? 
Ans: The steam produced in the heat exchanger is led to the steam turbine through a valve. After doing a useful work in the turbine, the steam is exhausted to condenser. The condenser condenses the steam which is fed to the heat exchanger through feed water pump.

5)what is the function of alternator in nuclear power station?? 
Ans: The steam turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The output from the alternator is delivered to the bus-bars through transformer, circuit breakers and isolators.


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Tuesday, 8 May 2018

How To Generate Electricity In Hydro Power Plant??

How To Generate Electricity In Hydro Power Plant?? 



Full Process Of To Produce The Power In The Hydro Power Station Using The Water And Full Description About The Hydro Power Station Differents Parts Which A Helping To Generate Electricity!! 



A Generating Station which utilises the potential energy of water at a high level for the generation of electrical energy is known as a Hydro Electric Power Station.






Hydro-Electric Power Stations are generally located in hilly areas where dams can be built conveniently and large water reservoirs can be obtained.

In a hydro-electric power station, water head is created by constructing a dam across a river or lake. From the dam, water is led to a water turbine. 






The water turbine captures the energy in the falling water and changes the Hydraulic Energy (i.e., product of head and flow of water) into mechanical energy at the turbine shaft.


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The turbine drives The Alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.





Hydro-electric power stations are becoming very popular because the reserves of fuels (i.e., coal and oil) are depleting day by day.

They have the added importance for flood control, storage of water for irrigation and water for Drinking Purposes.




Schematic Arrangement of Hydro-electric Power Station


a hydro-electric power station simply involves the conversion of hydraulic energy into electrical energy, yet it embraces many arrangements for proper working and efficiency.


The schematic arrangement of a Modern hydro-electric Plant is shown in Figer.





The dam is constructed across a river or lake and water from the catchment area collects at the back of the dam to form a reservoir.


A Pressure Tunnel is taken off from the reservoir and water brought to the valve house at the start of the penstock.

The valve house contains main sluice valves and automatic isolating valves. The former controls the water flow to the power house and the latter cuts off supply of water when the penstock bursts.


From the valve house, water is taken to water turbine through a Huge Steel Pipe known as penstock.





The water turbine converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.

The turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.


The constituents of a hydro-electric plant are


  • (1) hydraulic structures
  • (2) water turbines and
  • (3) electrical equipment.


We shall discuss these items in turn.


1. Hydraulic structures: 

Hydraulic structures in a hydro-electric power station include dam, spillways, headworks, surge tank, penstock and accessory works.


Dam:

A dam is a barrier which stores water and creates water head.


Dams are built of concrete or stone masonary, earth or rock fill.

The type and arrangement depends upon the topography of the site. A Masonary Dam may be built in a narrow canyon. An earth dam may be best suited for a wide valley.

The type of dam also depends upon the foundation conditions, local materials and transportation available, occurrence of earthquakes and other hazards.

At most of sites, more than one type of dam may be suitable and the one which is most economical is chosen.



Spillways:

There are times when the river flow exceeds the Storage Capacity of the reservoir.

Such a situation arises during heavy rainfall in the catchment area. In order to discharge the surplus water from the storage reservoir into the river on the down-stream side of the dam, spillways are used.


Spillways are constructed of concrete piers on the top of the dam. Gates are provided between these piers and surplus water is discharged over the crest of the dam by opening these gates.



Headworks:

The headworks consists of the diversion structures at the head of an intake.

They generally include booms and racks for diverting floating debris, sluices for by-passing debris and sediments and valves for controlling the flow of water to the turbine.

The flow of water into and through headworks should be as smooth as possible to avoid head loss and cavitation.

For this purpose, it is necessary to avoid sharp corners and abrupt contractions or enlargements.



Surge tank:

Open conduits leading water to the turbine require no protection.

However, when closed conduits are used, protection becomes necessary to limit the abnormal pressure in the conduit. For this reason, closed conduits are always provided with a surge tank.

A surge tank is a small reservoir or tank (open at the top) in which water level rises or falls to reduce the pressure swings in the conduit.



Penstocks:

Penstocks are open or closed conduits which carry water to the turbines. They are generally made of reinforced concrete or steel.

Concrete penstocks are suitable for low heads (< 30 m) as greater pressure causes rapid deterioration of concrete.


The steel penstocks can be designed for any head; the thickness of the penstock increases with the head or working pressure.



2. Water turbines: 

Water turbines are used to convert the energy of falling water into mechanical energy. The principal types of water turbines are:

(i) Impulse turbines 
(ii) Reaction turbines




Impulse turbines:

 Such turbines are used for high heads. In an impulse turbine, the entire pressure of water is converted into kinetic energy in a nozzle and the velocity of the jet drives the wheel.



Reaction turbines:

 Reaction turbines are used for low and medium heads.


In a reaction turbine, water enters the runner partly with pressure energy and partly with velocity head.

The important types of reaction turbines are :
(a) Francis turbines
(b) Kaplan turbines



3.Electrical equipment:

The electrical equipment of a hydro-electric power station includes alternators, transformers, circuit breakers and other switching and protective devices.



Question Part:


1)What is hydro power plant???
Ans: A generating station which utilises the potential energy of water at a high level for the generation of electrical energy is known as a hydro-electric power station.

2) What is turbine???
Ans : The turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

3)What is function of dam in hydro power plant??
Ans : A dam is a barrier which stores water and creates water head. Dams are built of concrete or stone masonary, earth or rock fill. The type and arrangement depends upon the topography of the site. A masonary dam may be built in a narrow canyon. An earth dam may be best suited for a wide valley. The type of dam also depends upon the foundation conditions, local materials and transportation available, occurrence of earthquakes and other hazards. At most of sites, more than one type of dam may be suitable and the one which is most economical is chosen.

4)What is spillways in hydro power plant???
Ans : There are times when the river flow exceeds the storage capacity of the reservoir. Such a situation arises during heavy rainfall in the catchment area. In order to discharge the surplus water from the storage reservoir into the river on the down-stream side of the dam, spillways are used. Spillways are constructed of concrete piers on the top of the dam. Gates are provided between these piers and surplus water is discharged over the crest of the dam by opening these gates.

5)What is the function of surge tank??
Ans : Open conduits leading water to the turbine require no protection. However, when closed conduits are used, protection becomes necessary to limit the abnormal pressure in the conduit. For this reason, closed conduits are always provided with a surge tank. A surge tank is a small reservoir or tank (open at the top) in which water level rises or falls to reduce the pressure swings in the conduit.

6) What is function of penstok???
Ans : Penstocks are open or closed conduits which carry water to the turbines. They are generally made of reinforced concrete or steel. Concrete penstocks are suitable for low heads (< 30 m) as greater pressure causes rapid deterioration of concrete. The steel penstocks can be designed for any head; the thickness of the penstock increases with the head or working pressure.

7)What is impulse turbine And where is use its in hydro power plant??
Ans :  Such turbines are used for high heads. In an impulse turbine, the entire pressure of water is converted into kinetic energy in a nozzle and the velocity of the jet drives the wheel.

8)Give the types of reaction turbine???
Ans : The important types of reaction turbines are :
(a) Francis turbines
(b) Kaplan turbines

9)Which type of electric equipment are used in hydro power plant???
Ans : The electrical equipment of a hydro-electric power station includes alternators, transformers, circuit breakers and other switching and protective devices



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Thursday, 3 May 2018

Full Form Of LCD And How Does LCD Screen Work??

Full Form Of LCD And How Does LCD Screen Work?? 



All About The LCD Screen And How Its A Useful In The real Life Application And Also Its Applications!!!



A Liquid Crystal is a state of matter between a solid and a liquid. The characteristic feature o liquid crystal is its long cylindrical molecules.


The alignment of molecules can exist only over a limited Temperature Range of 0-50°C with most available devices.



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Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) are used in similar applications where LEDs are used.

These applications are display of numeric and alphanumeric characters in dot matrix and Segmental Displays.


LCDs are of two types-dynamic scattering type and Field Effect type.


The dynamic scaruering liquid crystal cell is constructed by layering the liquid crystal between glass sheets with Transparent Electrodes deposited on the inside faces.






The liquid crystal material may be one of the Several Organic Compounds which exhibit opucal properties of a crystal, though they remain in liquid form.

When a Potential is applied across the cell. charge carriers flowing through a liquid disrupt the molecular alignment and produce turbulence.

When the liquid is not activated, it is transparent.



When the liquid is activated, the Molecular Turbulence causes light to be scattered in all directions and the cell appears to be bright.


The phenomenon is called dynamic scattering

The construction of a field effect liquid crystal display is similar to that of the dynamic scamering type, with the exception that two thin polarizing optical filters are placed at the inside of each glass sheet.


The liquid crystal marerial in the field effect cell is also of different type from that employed in the dynamic scattering cell.


The material used is twisted nematic type and it actually twists the light passing through the cell when the latter is not energized. 


This allows the light to pass through the optical filters and the cell appears brigh. when the cell is energized, no twistng of light takes place and the cell appears dull.

Liquid crystal cells are of two types - transmittive type and reflective type.


In the transmirtive type cell, both glass sheets are transparent so that hght from a rear source is scattered in the forward direction when the cell is activated.

The reflective type cell has a reflective surface on one side of the glass sheets. The incident light on the front surface of the cell is dynamically scanered by an activated cell. Both rypes of cells appear quite bright when activated even under ambient light conditions.



The liquid crystals are light reflectors or transmiaers and therefore, consume small amounts


The Advantages of LCDs are low power consumption and low cost.


The disadvantages than they occupy a large area and their operating speed is low. LCDs are normally used for seven segment displays.



Question part :

1)What is a full form of LCD?? 
Ans:Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)

2)How manny types of LCD?? 
Ans: LCDs are of two types-dynamic scattering type and field effect type.

3)which type of applications where we used a LCD?? 
Ans:Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are used in similar applications where LEDs are used. These applications are display of numeric and alphanumeric characters in dot matrix and segmental displays.

4)Advantage of LCD?? 
Ans:The advantages of LCDs are low power consumption and low cost. The disadvantages than they occupy a large area and their operating speed is low. LCDs are normally used for seven segment displays



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