Thursday, 7 June 2018

What Is The Microprocessor And Do Its Work??

What Is The Microprocessor And Do Its Work??



Basic Of The Microprocessor And Functions Of Microprocessor And A Microprocessor Based System Theory !!




The Microprocessor is a Programmable Device that Takes in NumbersPerforms on Them  Arithmetic or Logical Operations according to  the Program Stored in Memory and then Produces other numbers as a result.


Definition

• Lets expand each of the underlined words:


– Programmable Device: 

The Microprocessor can perform
different sets of operations on the data it receives depending on the sequence of instructions supplied in the given
program. By changing the program, the Microprocessor manipulates  the data in different ways.

– Instructions: Each Microprocessor is designed to execute a specific group of operations. This group of operations is
called an instruction set. This instruction set defines what the  Microprocessor can and cannot do.





– Takes in: 

The data that the Microprocessor
manipulates must come from somewhere.
• It comes from what is called “input devices”.
• These are devices that bring data into the system from the outside world.
• These represent devices such as a keyboard, a  mouse, switches, and the like.


– Numbers:

 The Microprocessor has a very narrow view on life. It only understands binary numbers. A binary digit is called a bit (which comes from binary digit).  The microprocessor recognizes and processes a group of bits together. This group of bits is called a “word”. The number of bits in a Microprocessor’s word, is a measure of its
“abilities”.

– Words, Bytes, etc.

• The earliest Microprocessor (the Intel 8088 and Motorola’s 6800) recognized 8-bit words.
– They processed information 8-bits at a time. That’s why they are called “8-bit processors”. They can handle large numbers, but in order to process these numbers, they broke them into 8-bit pieces
and processed each group of 8-bits separately.
• Later Microprocessors (8086 and 68000) were designed with
16-bit words.
– A group of 8-bits were referred to as a “half-word” or “byte”.
– A group of 4 bits is called a “nibble”.
– Also, 32 bit groups were given the name “long word”.
• Today, all processors manipulate at least 32 bits at a time and
there exists microprocessors that can process 64, 80, 128 bits .

– Arithmetic and Logic Operations: 

• Every Microprocessor has arithmetic operations such as add and subtract as part of its instruction set.
– Most Microprocessors will have operations such as multiply and
divide.
– Some of the newer ones will have complex operations such as  square root.
• In addition, Microprocessors have logic operations as well.  Such as AND, OR, XOR, shift left, shift right, etc.
• Again, the number and types of operations define the Microprocessor’s instruction set and depends on the specific microprocessor.




– Stored in memory :

• First, what is memory?

– Memory is the location where information is kept while not in  current use.
– Memory is a collection of storage devices. Usually, each storage  device holds one bit. Also, in most kinds of memory, these
storage devices are grouped into groups of 8. These 8 storage  locations can only be accessed together. So, one can only read or
write in terms of bytes to and form memory.
– Memory is usually measured by the number of bytes it can hold.  It is measured in Kilos, Megas and lately Gigas. A Kilo in
computer language is 210 =1024. So, a KB (KiloByte) is 1024  bytes. Mega is 1024 Kilos and Giga is 1024 Mega.


– Stored in memory:

• When a program is entered into a computer, it is  stored in memory. Then as the microprocessor starts to execute the instructions, it brings the instructions
from memory one at a time.
• Memory is also used to hold the data.
– The microprocessor reads (brings in) the data from memory when it needs it and writes (stores) the results into memory when it is done.

– Produces:

 For the user to see the result of the execution of the program, the results must be  presented in a human readable form.
• The results must be presented on an output device.
• This can be the monitor, a paper from the printer, a

simple LED or many other forms.


A Microprocessor - based system

MicroprocessorMicrocomputerMicrocontrollerMicrocomputer



From the above description, we can draw the  following block diagram to represent a
microprocessor-based system:



Inside The Microprocessor

• Internally, the microprocessor is made up of  3 main units.
– The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
– The Control Unit.
– An array of registers for holding data while it is  being manipulated.


Organization of a Microprocessor -
based system

Let’s expand the picture a bit.


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