Friday, 15 February 2019

How Do Solar Panels Works ??

How Do Solar Panels Works ??



Here The Present How To Solar Panels Works For Transfer The Solar Energy Into Electrical Energy Which Was We Can Use In Our Electrical Applications .




The World Intercept A lot Of Power 173000 terawatt That's 10000 Times More Power Than Planet Population Used.


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First WE Need To Understand How Solar Panels  Converts The Solar Energy Into Electrical Energy.

Solar Panels Are Made By Small Units Its Called Solar Cell.






Most Common Solar Cell Made From Silicon. In Solar Cell The Crystal And Silicon is Sandwich Between Conductive Layers.

Each Silicon Atoms Are Connected To Their Neighbors By 4 strong Bonds Which Keep Electrons In Place So No Current Can Flow.

A silicone Solar Cell Uses Two Different Layers Which In N - Type Silicone Has Extra Electrons And P - Type Silicone Has Extra Spaces For Electrons Called Halls.




Solar panels are consisting of some solar cells connected in series. Each of the cell produce half volt ( 0.5 volt ). Thus to charge a cell phone maximum 12 solar Cells are needed.

The main and basic element of a solar cell is silicon. Silicon is flattened and two conducting plates are attached over the flattened silicon .





One Silicon atom has 4 electrons that make four strong co-valent bond with the other silicon atom thus there is no free electron and hole takes place naturally silicon is very very bad conductor of electricity UNLESS DOPING OVER IT IS DONE.

There are two types of doping …

A. N - type doping

B. P - type doping.



Flattened silicon is hypothetically cut in two halves in one half N type doping is done , an electron is injected in N side then that electron become free to move across N side.


If N side is ljghtly doped then number of free electron will be less if it is heavily doped then number of free electron increases and carier density also increases .

Electrons become the majority carrier .




Now ,

On the other half of the flattened silicon P type doping is done .

An electron is taking outside from the co -valent bond forcefully which creates an empty place , this empty place is called as hole .


To fulfill that hole one electron rush towards the hole and it will create another hole from where it will come. In this way holes become free to move If is highly doped then the carrier ( holes ) density will be more.




In solar cell photons are main source of energy . When protons are triggered over conduction plate then temperature rises and free electron absorbs the energy and gets excited thus it will jump from valence band to conduction band ( overcome the forbidden energy gap ) Composition changes drastically. Electron conducts in one direction only.


Thus voltage produce in the output terminal is DC in type , current is unidirectional in nature.

The electrons cover the closed path by emitting themselves from the N - type region and come to the end or closes its circulation path by fulfilling the empty places ( holes ) in the P side region , in this way the circuit is completed.

Amount of voltage is basically depends on intensity of light falling over the cell. Intensity of light is not same in parts of our country thats why output voltage of a solar cell varies .

The output if a solar cell is stored in a solar battery. In day light the bettery gets charged.






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How Solar Panels Generate Electricity?

Generally, the solar grid has thin metal lines printed on the top N-type layer and the bottom P-type layer is in contact with an aluminum plate.

When the solar energy in the form of light waves hits the top surface of the silicon photovoltaic cell, only lights with wavelength from a specific window of the solar spectrum (350 to 1140nm) are absorbed into the middle layer.


This range of waves length includes the visible spectrum. Ultraviolet wavelengths are so short they stop at the surface. Infrared wavelengths are so long they can’t be absorbed and pass right through the cell or are reflected back.


Every time this occurs the light wave knocks an electron off a silicon atom, this set the electron loose and leave an area of positive charge a hole.

The loose electron then moves towards and reaches the top N-type layer, which readily accepts electrons.

In a similar way, the loose hole moves towards and reaches the bottom P-type layer which readily accepts holes.

This process keeps repeating as long as the sun is shining on the solar cell.

Now that the electrons and the holes have been separated, a wire connected between the top and bottom metal electrodes provides a pathway for the electrons to move towards the hole.

A flow of electrons is what gives us electrical current.

The basic process of photon hits atom exciting electrons.

If the hit contains enough energy, the electrons can exit the atoms, ionizing them.

Well, electrical current is fundamentally a steady stream of electrons flowing through atoms.





The key job solar panels do is to:

1 - Have the right materials to capture as much as possible of that photonic energy into excited atoms

2 - Force those excited electrons into electrical current


A large solar panels is a string of dozens of little photovoltaic cells. Each producing perhaps under 1 volt of electrical potential each. Linked in series typically producing around 48+ volts total in optimal conditions.


In real world systems, many solar panels are wired in series or parallel. If you have 20 solar panels in series, with each panel having 60 or 72 cells, you have 1200 little cells in series.

Solar panels in your roof typically convert 12 to 23% of sunlight into useable electricity.


There are much more expensive ones that reach 30% or higher efficiency (typically used only on satellites and systems where cost is a much lower concern than performance). Top end panels achieve 40% efficiency.

Rooftop (residential and commercial) PV efficiency have been climbing steadily. Like a half percentage point per year.

In a decade we could be nearing 30% efficiency at commercial panels.

The sun provide us with a lot of energy. A square meter gets around 1000 Watts of raw solar radiation in a clear day except close to sunrise and sunset.

This allows rooftop solar panels which are typically 2 square meters large to produce up to 400 watts of electricity each. But typical cheaper panels will give you 200–300W.



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