Sunday, 2 June 2019

Different types of Power Electronic Converters, Advantages and Disadvantages

Different types of Power Electronic Converters, Advantages and Disadvantages


Power Electronics circuits are also called as power converters.

A converter uses semiconductor switches to convert electrical power at high efficiency.

Switches used are diodes, transistors or thyristors. Converters/cintrollers are classified into main categories.





01. Diode Rectifiers : Rectifier circuit converts ac input voltage into a fixed dc voltage. These are uncontrolled rectifiers.

Applications - Used in battery charging, electroplating, power supply, ups system.



02. Phase Controlled Rectifiers (AC to DC converters) : These controllers convert fixed ac voltage to a variable dc output voltage. These are controlled rectifiers.

Applications - Used in DC drives, battery driven vehicles.



03. Choppers (DC to DC converter) : A chopper converts fixed dc input voltage to a variable dc output voltage.

Applications - Used in DC drives, battery driven vehicles.



04. Inverter (DC to AC converters) : An inverter converts a fixed dc voltage to an voltage of variable frequency and of fixed or variable magnitude.

Applications - Used in induction motor, synchronous motor drives, induction heating, ups.




05. AC converters cycloconverter (AC to AC converters) : These circuits convert input power at one frequency to output power at a different frequency.

Applications - Used lighting control, speed control of fans, pumps.




06. AC voltage controllers (AC regulators) : These converters convert fixed ac voltage directly to a variable ac voltage at same frequency using line commutation.




Advantages of Power Electronic Converters

01. High efficiency due to low loss in power semiconductor devices.
02. High reliability of power electronic converter system.
03. Long life and less maintenance due to the absence of any moving.
04. Fast dynamic response of power electronic systems as compared to electromechanical converter systems.
05. Small size and less weight result in less space therefore lower installation cost.
06. Mass production of power semiconductor devices has resulted in lower cost of converter equipment.



Disadvantages of Power Electronic Converter

01. Power electronics converter circuit have a tendency to generate harmonics in the supply system and in the load circuit.
02. AC to DC and DC to AC converter operate at low input power factor.
03. Power electronic controller have low overload capacity.

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