Sunday, 23 June 2019

What is Corona effect and formation of corona ??

What is Corona effect and formation of corona ??

Corona Effect 

When an alternating potential difference is applied across two conductors whose spacing is large as compared to their diameters, there is no apparent change in the condition of atmospheric air surrounding the wires if the applied voltage is low.

However, when the applied voltage exceeds a certain value, called critical disruption voltage, the conductors are surrounded by a faint violet glow called Corona.

The phenomenon of Corona is accompanied by a hissing sound, production of ozone, power loss and radio interference.

The higher the voltage is raised, the larger and higher the luminous envelope becomes, and greater are the sound, the power loss and the radio noise.

If the applied voltage is increased to breakdown value, a flash - over will occur between the conductors due to the breakdown of air insulation.

The phenomenon of violet glow, hissing noise and production of ozone gas in an overhead transmission line is known as Corona.

If the conductors are polished and smooth, the corona glow will be uniform throughout the lentgh of the conductors, otherwise the rough points will appear brighter.

With d.c voltage, there is difference in the appearance of the two wires.

The positive wire has uniform glow about it, while the negative conductor has spotty glow.

how Corona is formed.

Some ionisation is always present in air due to cosmic rays, ultra-violet radiations and radioactivity.

Therefore, under normal conditions, the air around the conductors contains some ionised particles ( i.e., free electrons and +Ve ions ) and neutral molecules.

When p.d. is applied between the conductors, potential gradient is set up in the air which will have maximum value at the conductor surfaces.

Under the influence of potential gradient, the existing free electrons acquire greater velocities.

The greater the applied voltage, the greater the potential gradient and more is the Velocity of free electrons.

When the potential gradient at the conductor surface reaches about 30 KV per cm (max value) the Velocity acquired by the free electrons is sufficient to strike a neutral molecule with enough force to dislodge one or more electrons from it.

This produces another ion and one or more free electrons, which in turn are accelerated until they collide with other neutral molecules, thus producing other ions. Thus, the process of ionisation is cumulative.

The result of this ionisation is that either Corona is formed or spark takes place between the conductors.