Tuesday, 2 July 2019

Learn about Protective Relay

Learn about Protective Relay

Learn About Protective Relay

A protective relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of the circuit breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system.

The relays detect the abnormal conditions in the electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities which are different under normal and fault conditions.

The electrical quantities which may change under fault conditions are voltage, current, frequency and phase angle.

Through the changes in one or more of these quantities, the faults signal their presence, type and location to the protective relays.

Having detected the fault, the relay operates to close the trip circuit of the breaker. This results in the opening of the breaker and disconnection of the faulty circuit.

A typical relay circuit is shown in below figure. This diagram shows one phase of three phase system for simplicity.

The relay circuit connections can be divided into three parts viz.

01. First part is the primary winding of a current transformer (C.T) which is connected in series with the line to be protected.

02. Second part consists of secondary winding of C.T. and the relay operating coil.

03. Third part is the tripping circuit which may be either a.c or d.c. It consists of a source of supply, the trip coil of the circuit breaker and the relay stationary contacts.

When a short circuit occurs at point F on the transmission line, the current flowing in the line increase to an enormous value.

This results in a heavy current flow through the relay coil, causing the relay to operate by closing it's contacts.

This in turn closes the trip circuit of the breaker, making the circuit breaker open and isolating the faulty section from the rest of the system.

In this way, the relay ensures the safety of the circuit equipment from damage and normal working of the healthy portion of the system.